NASA Is About to Launch Its Most Powerful Rocket Ever, With a Few Surprises Onboard

While no human will travel aboard the Artemis I mission once it blasts off to the Moon, it won’t be going empty. Along for the ride in the Orion capsule will be mannequins, zero gravity indicators, artifacts, mementos, and more.

NASA is planning to launch its new Space Launch System, with the Orion capsule designed to host astronauts perched atop the rocket, on August 29.

It would be a major first step in the space agency’s efforts to get humans back to the surface of the Moon for the first time since 1972.

The SLS mega rocket plans to fly the crew capsule all the way around the Moon – farther than any spacecraft built for humans has ever flown – before heading back for a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean.

Here are some of the cool and colorful cargo slated to make the journey to the Moon and back.

Strapped in the commander’s seat at the head of the Orion capsule is a human-sized test dummy called Commander Moonikin Campos. The name is a nod to Arturo Campos, an electrical engineer who played a key role in Apollo 13’s safe return to Earth.

A mannequin in an orange spacesuit sitting in a chair.
Commander Moonikin Campos will measure the deep space environment around the Moon during Artemis 1. (NASA)

Clad in the new Orion Crew Survival System spacesuit, Commander Moonikin will provide NASA scientists with vital data on what humans experience during a trip to the Moon.

Two sensors placed behind the commander’s seat and under the headrest will record the acceleration and vibration generated throughout the mission, and the mannequin itself is equipped with two sensors to measure radiation exposure.

“It’s critical for us to get data from the Artemis I manikin to ensure all of the newly designed systems, coupled with an energy dampening system that the seats are mounted on, integrate together and provide the protection crew members will need in preparation for our first crewed mission on Artemis II,” Jason Hutt, NASA lead for Orion Crew Systems Integration, said in a statement last year.

Two other mannequins named Helga and Zohar will ride in Orion’s passenger seats.

They have torsos made of materials that mimic a woman’s soft tissue, organs and bones, along with 5,600 sensors and 34 radiation detectors to measure how much radiation exposure occurs during the mission.

The only difference between the two mannequins is that Zohar will be wearing a radiation protection vest, while Helga will not.

“When it comes to biological effects, different organs have different susceptibility to space radiation. Understanding the impact is very important for successful and sustainable human space exploration efforts,” Ramona Gaza, science team lead at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, said at a news briefing on August 17.

She added that the team is studying how women experience the space environment “as women, in general, have a higher risk of developing cancer since they have more radiation-sensitive organs such as breast tissue and ovaries”.

The space agencies hope studying what these mannequins experience will prepare astronauts planning to fly around the Moon on the Artemis 2 mission in 2024, and the Artemis 3 astronauts who eventually land on the Moon.

Insights from Zohar and Helga will be particularly useful, as the Artemis program aims to send the first woman to the Moon.

Zero-gravity indicators are small items aboard a spacecraft that serve as a visual indicator that it has entered zero gravity. Artemis I will have a couple of cute indicators.

Shaun, of British TV show Shaun the Sheep fame, will fly aboard the Artemis I mission in plush doll form.

A sheep in a blue jumpsuit stands in front of a space capsule.
Shaun the Sheep stands in front of a model of the Orion and European Service Module. (ESA/Aardman)

“This is an exciting time for Shaun and for us at ESA,” David Parker, the European Space Agency’s director for human and robotic exploration, said in a statement.

“We’re woolly very happy that he’s been selected for the mission and we understand that, although it might be a small step for a human, it’s a giant leap for lambkind.”

To “train” for the journey, Shaun went on a parabolic flight aboard a special Airbus “Zero G” A310 that creates the weightless condition similar to microgravity.

A familiar fuzzy figure will also fly as a zero gravity indicator in the capsule.

Snoopy, a black and white dog, wearing an orange NASA astronaut spacesuit.
Snoopy as a zero gravity indicator. (2021 Peanuts Worldwide LLC)

Snoopy, the beloved Peanuts character, has long been associated with NASA missions since the Apollo program. In fact, the Apollo 10 lunar module got the nickname “Snoopy” because its job was to snoop around and scout the Apollo 11 landing site on the Moon, according to NASA.

A plush version of the beagle – wearing a space suit designed according to NASA’s strict specifications – will alert the team once the capsule has reached a microgravity environment.

Four Lego Minifigures plan to take a ride around the Moon on the Artemis I mission.

The figurines also star in Lego’s “Build to Launch” series, which was designed in collaboration with NASA, to offer students lessons on different concepts and careers inspired by the Artemis missions.

Four LEGO mini figs in front of a space capsule.
Lego minifigures in front of European Service Module that will power the Orion spacecraft on Artemis II. (Radislav Sinyak/NASA)

“Each minifigure represents a real-life counterpart, such as a command pilot Kate and mission specialist Kyle, to help students better understand the diverse roles, backgrounds, and skillsets within the Artemis I team,” Lego Education said in a statement in November of last year.

NASA aims to set up permanent bases in the Moon’s orbit and on its surface, paving the way to eventually send astronauts to Mars.

Reliably cultivating crops in space will be necessary for would-be space travelers to survive longer missions. To that end, the space agency wants to understand how to grow plants in space for food and oxygen on the Moon or during space missions.

A variety of tree and plant seeds will be on board Artemis I as part of experiments to study the effects of space radiation on them. According to a statement by Sharmila Bhattacharya, NASA program scientist for space biology, they’ll “help us understand a unique aspect of how biological systems can adapt and thrive in deep space”.

“Gathering information like this and analyzing it after flight will eventually help us paint the full picture of how we can help humans thrive in deep space,” Bhattacharya added.

As part of Artemis I’s Official Flight Kit, which contains about 120 pounds of mementos, several artifacts from previous space missions will be in the Orion spacecraft as it reaches for the Moon.

A bolt and washer on a beige surface.
The bolt from one of Apollo 11’s F-1 engines. (Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum)

A small piece of Moon rock from the Apollo 11 mission, an Apollo 11 mission patch, and a bolt from one of Apollo 11’s F-1 engines will be along for the ride.

Objects of cultural significance will also be on the roundtrip journey, including a 3D-printed replica of the Greek goddess Artemis, and a pebble from the lowest dry land surface on Earth, the shore of the Dead Sea – venturing further than any human has gone before.

This article was originally published by Business Insider.

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Source: sciencealert.com

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